WHAT IS GOOD TO KNOW ABOUT THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROFLORA?

What is a microbiome?

The aggregate of microorganisms normally inhabiting the human body is known as microflora, microbiota or microbiome. The human microbiome has been found to consist of approximately 100 trillion bacterial cells – 10 times more than the number of cells in the human body.

Microorganisms colonise or inhabit every surface of the human body, which has access to the environment, including the skin, the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts.

The colon is the most colonised part of the gastrointestinal tract, being inhabited by 1 trillion microorganisms per gram faecal content, represented by hundreds of species.

In most general terms, microorganisms can be distinguished as useful and harmful to humans.

 

What are the functions of the microbiome in the human body?

Useful bacteria perform important metabolic, protective and immunological functions for human health, manifested as:

  • Improved digestion and absorption of nutrients that the human organism cannot absorb, which are accumulated in the ascending part of the colon as a result of the slow speed of the intestinal passage;
  • Synthesis of vitamins;
  • Inhibited growth of pathogenic (harmful) bacteria;
  • Stimulation of the immune system.

 

The normal microflora is a stable ecosystem. Differences in the composition of the microflora exist between individuals in terms of species and microbial number, but the microflora remains a relatively constant value during the entire lifetime of an individual. Certain factors can contribute to destroying the balance in that ecosystem, the administration of antibiotics being of leading importance for that process.

 

What is happening during the antibiotic treatment?

The role of antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections is indispensable, but while coping with the pathogenic bacteria, they inflict fatal damage to the microflora, which can have either short-term or long-term clinical manifestations.

The complete recovery of the microbiome after antibiotic therapy takes a long time: between several months and several years. In some cases, individual strains (subtypes of a certain microorganism) are completely destroyed and the microbiome cannot recover to its initial levels. This triggers disorders in the regulation of many processes in the organism and is a prerequisite for the manifestation of diseases – both connected to the gastrointestinal tract and outside it.

One of the most frequent complications immediately after antibiotic therapy is antibiotic-associated diarrhoea that can affect more than 30% of the patients. The irritable bowel syndrome is another complication that can occur either immediately after the antibiotic course, or months and even years after it.

An increasing volume of research evidence supports the interrelation between the disturbed gastrointestinal microflora and morbid states outside the gastrointestinal tract, which may find clinical manifestation years after the intake of antibiotics. Altered ratio of “good” and “bad” bacteria is observed in diseases like asthma, autism and in the case of various allergic reactions. The disturbed ratio of “good” and “bad” bacteria also results in maintaining a permanent inflammatory reaction, which is one of the leading factors for the emergence and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

Some diseases of the cardiovascular and bone systems can be explained with reduced synthesis of vitamin K, which is produced only by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

 

Role of probiotics in antibiotic therapy

Probiotics are used increasingly to neutralise the negative effect of antibiotic treatment on the microbiome.

Probiotics are living microorganisms which, administered in a sufficient concentration, have beneficial effects on the human organism.

The dose of the probiotic is one of the most important conditions for the rapid restoring of the microbiome. According to ESPGHAN (European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition), the effect of the probiotics is defined as dose-dependent, i.e. with a better effect for doses in the interval between 10 and 100 billion CFU (colony-forming units of microorganisms).

The selection of the strains in the probiotic formula is another important condition. The rich species diversity of the strains, their resistance to the different antibiotics and the speed with which they divide are key factors for the faster recovery of the microbiome to its initial values.

The capacity of the strains to produce metabolites to feed the surviving microflora and bacteriocins, which inhibit the growth of “bad” bacteria, are another extremely important factor for the recovery process after antibiotic treatment.

 

WHAT IS SINQUANON?

SINQUANON is a probiotic that has been specially designed to maintain normal gastrointestinal flora during and after antibiotic treatment.

It is a blend of 13 specially selected probiotic strains in a megadose of 100 billion CFU*.

Content of one daily dose – 2 capsules (100 billion live microorganisms):

Active substances:

Quantity of active substance:

Lactobacillus Spp.

63 billion CFU*

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR-G14

 

Lactobacillus plantarum LP-G18

 

Lactobacillus reuteri LR-G100

 

Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-G80

 

Lactobacillus casei LC-G11

 

Lactobacillus paracasei LPc-G110

 

Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12

 

Bifidobacterium Spp.

31 billion CFU*

Bifidobacterium lactis BL-G101

 

Bifidobacterium longum BL-G301

 

Bifidobacterium breve BB-G95

 

Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-G90

 

Saccharomyces boulardii

5 billion CFU*

Bacillus coagulans

1 billion CFU*

Patented prebiotic blend FOS, XOS and MOS

30 mg

Vitamin В1

14 mg

Vitamin В2

16 mg

Vitamin B3

10 mg

Vitamin В6

10 mg

Vitamin В7 – biotin

500 µg

Vitamin В9 – folic acid

400 µg

Excipients:

 

Magnesium stearate

 

 

*CFU – colony-forming units (number of live cells)

 

HOW DOES SINQUANON WORK AND WHO IS IT INTENDED FOR?

SINQUANON is a special selection of 13 probiotic strains: LactobacillusBifidobacteriumSaccharomyces and spore-forming bacilli with a high natural resistance to antibiotics, in a megadose of 100 billion live cells, which maintains normal intestinal microflora during and after antibiotic therapy.

Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are lactic acid bacteria, which are the most numerous typical inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. They produce substances and metabolites that are important for the organism and for the existence of the intestinal flora.

Antibiotic treatment causes a strong reduction of the number of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria.

SINQUANON contains a high dose (94 billion) of live Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, which results in rapid attaining of high concentrations of useful microorganisms in the intestines.

SINQUANON also contains a special probiotic strain Bacillus coagulanswhich is transformed into spores under unfavourable conditions of the medium, which makes it extremely resistant to harmful effects, e.g. during antibiotic therapy. In addition, it increases the population of useful bacteria in the intestines.

SINQUANON also contains Saccharomyces boulardii – probiotic yeast that is not affected by antibiotics. It produces enzymes that disintegrate the toxins in the intestines and contributes to maintaining a normal intestinal microflora.

The existence of different strains in SINQUANON favours the mutual potentiating of their beneficial effects.

The strains in SINQUANON divide fast and double their mass approximately at 20-minute intervals. Owing to this, they manage to maintain the intestinal microflora closer to its physiological levels during antibiotic treatment.

The strains in SINQUANON are specially selected with increased natural resistance against the most frequently used antibiotics, which guarantees their survival and effectiveness.

The normal synthesis of vitamins from the B group decreases during antibiotic treatment, therefore in addition to the probiotic blend, SINQUANON also contains a complex of 6 vitamins from the B group.

SINQUANON also contains a prebiotic blend, specially designed for the needs of the 13 probiotic strains included in its composition. It includes three types of oligosaccharides that are not degradable by the human organism, which serve as food both for the probiotic strains and for the useful bacteria living normally in the gastrointestinal tract. The prebiotics assist the strains in SINQUANON to start dividing rapidly.

The SINQUANON capsule is gastro-resistant, which means that it passes through the acid medium in the stomach and is dissolved in the small intestines. In this way, the probiotic bacteria reach the intestines alive, where they have their beneficial effects.

 

WHO SHOULD NOT TAKE SINQUANON?

Do not take SINQUANON if you have ever had an allergic reaction to any of the ingredients of the product.

 

WHAT ARE THE SIDE EFFECTS OF SINQUANON?

No side effects and contraindications of the administration of the product are known so far. Its tolerance is very good, which allows safe use for prolonged periods of time. SINQUANON may be used during pregnancy and breast feeding, as well as by diabetics.

 

HOW SHOULD SINQUANON BE ADMINISTERED?

Adults and children aged above 5 years should take 2 capsules daily from the first day of the antibiotic therapy.

After completion of the antibiotic therapy, it is important the administration of SINQUANON to continue for at least two more weeks in a dose of 1 capsule daily for attaining a longer lasting and reliable effect. The recommended interval between the intake of the antibiotic and SINQUANON is at least 2 hours.

Do not take SINQUANON with hot or alcoholic beverages so as not to destroy the living bacteria in the capsules.

 

STORAGE

SINQUANON is to be kept in its original package at a temperature not exceeding 25°С, in a dry place without exposure to direct sunlight, and inaccessible to children.

Do not use the product after its expiry date or if its packaging is not intact.